Self-Instruction in Embroidery

Waldvogel Archival Collection
Augusta, Maine, United States
This 32-page booklet entitled Self-Instruction in Embroidery by Anna Grayson Ford published by The Vickery & Hill Co., of Augusta, Maine is a reprint of one printed in 1900 by C. W. Calkins, Boston, MA. The author’s name is a pseudonym. Although the focus is embroidered fancy work projects, a crazy quilt layout and stitching are included.


In the course of several years' connection as needle-work editor
with one of the most widely circulated publications in this country,
the need of a small comprehensive volume on self-instruction in em-
broidery has been made apparent. Many ladies write something like
this : "I cannot spend the time for an elaborate course of embroidery
lessons, even had I the opportunity and the wish to do so. What
I want is to learn something of the simpler stitches so that I can, in
spare moments, make little articles for gifts and to decorate my own
home. Can you recommend a book which will be what I need ? The
average books and journals devoted to what is called art needlework
are not practical and of no value to me." The answer to this and
similar questions is embodied in this little volume. The designs given
for the application of stitches are so imple as to be easily copied
with pencil and transferred to a chosenfabric by the aid of impres-
sion paper, and the greatest variety possible in so limited a space is
presented. I have written for the millions of home-makers who de-
light in the little decorative touches that add so much to the refine-
ment and beauty of their rooms, and am sure that my work will be
appreciated. If further or more explicit information upon any point
is desired, it will be given gladly.
Station II, Boston, Mass.

Self-Instruction in Embroidery.
There are one hundred or more stitches known to embroiderers, and
from these the skilled needleworker may evolve almost numberless combina-
tions. The stitches herewith explained, however, include about all that are
required in the production of the styles of embroidery now in vogue. The
first stitch usually taught a beginner is that simplest and perhaps most useful
of all, the outline stitch. This is really a reverse back-stitch, and may be well
described as a long stitch forward on the surface of the fabric, and a shorter
one backward on the underside, where the effect is much that of the back-
stitch used by seamstresses ; this, in fact, being frequently used for outlining.
For a perfectly even line care must be taken that the direction of the needle,
when inserted, is in a straight line with the preced-
ing stitch. (See No. 1.) In this, known as the
Kensington outline stitch, the outline or stamped
line must be accurately followed. Bring the thread
up through the material, on the line, push the needle
down again about one-eighth of an inch in advance,
throw the thread to one side, and draw the stitch
snug, but not so tight as to pucker the work. The
stitches in a single piece of work should be of the
same length, and this is determined by the quality
of the materials used. For a sofa-pillow, using rope
linen on art canvas, the outline stitches would be
much longer than those used in outlining a dainty
doily with fine floss.
Stem-stitch proper is so slight a modification of the outline stitch as
to be frequently confounded with it. There is this difference (No. 2) : the
stitch is taken at a slight angle instead of in a perfectly straight line, thus
giving a wider and somewhat serrate outline. The
greater the angle the wider becomes the line. The
stitches should have a little space Between them.
A leaf begun at the stalk should be worked around
the right side to the top, care being taken to draw
out the needle to the left of the thread ; having
reached the point of the leaf, reverse the operation
In working down the left side toward the stem
again, keeping the needle to the right of the thread
when drawn out. When a thick, cord-like outline is
desired, the stitches are made close together, as

Split outline (No. 4) is used mainly for delicate lines. It is worked
like the simple outline stitch, except that the needle is brought up through
the working thread, which is thus split. The effect is some-
what like that of chain stitch.
As suggested, the back-stitch is frequently used for out-
lining. Instead of bringing the needle out at the point
where the embroidery is to begin, it is brought out say one-
eighth inch in advance ; then the needle is put back and this
space taken up, together with another one-eighth inch in
advance. For the next and succeeding stitches, the needle
is pushed in where the last stitch was taken.
The method of taking the back-stitch is illustrated by
No. 5, which shows the filling-in of a conventional leaf-
shape. The back-stitch is taken on a line. Used as shown,
it is called seed-stitch. Two back-stitches taken side by side (No. 6) form the
simple knot-stitch, and may be used where a heavier " seed " is desired. The
leaf, as illustrated, has a satin-stitch edge, and
one side is filled in with simple cross-stitch. Very
little knowledge of embroidery is required to
produce the most exquisite effects in this class
of work.
The running, or gathering stitch, with which
all are familiar, is also used in outlining. No. 7
illustrates this, and also a very effective variation
in twisted stitch, which consists of a line of running stitches first made,
over these being passed a second thread. The needle is carried under each
stitch in succession, and the thread drawn rather tightly if a straight line
is desired, but left looser for the twisted effect. Worked in thread of two
colors, this stitch is very effective, giving the
appearance of a line cord sewed or couched
upon the design.
The chain-stitch is used as an outline
stitch ; although in pieces of ancient embroi-
dery it is employed also as a fining stitch.
There are several variations of this. The
simple chain-stitch (No. 8) is made thus :
take a stitch downward, bringing the thread
under the point 71 the needle before drawing out the latter. For the next
and succeeding stitches, insert the needle downward through the tip of
preceding loop, bringing It out again over the working thread. The " zig-
zag chain" (No. 93 worked in the same -way, varying only in the slant.
Twisted chain, or rope-stitch (No. 10), is
begun in the same way as a simple
chain-stitch ; the succeeding stitches,
however, are made by pushing the needle
down to the left and back of the loop,
instead of through it, bringing it out at
the right to form the loop. For heavy
work this stitch is very effective, forming

a beautiful raised outline, strong and serviceable, and not unlike a couched
cord, while far more durable than the latter. It is especially adapted to
outlining pillow-tops, which will see
much use. Cable-stitch proper is an-
other useful variation of the chain-
stitch for heavy outlining (No. 11).
To work this, bring the needle up
through on the right side of work,
bold the thread straight down under
the thumb of the left hand, pass the
needle from right to left under the thread held by the thumb, draw it up until
the silk thus held forms a small loop then, keeping the thumb in the same
position, insert the needle in the material below the thread, and directly
underneath the place where it was brought out before, bringing the needle
up in a straight line one-fourth inch below, but
do not pass it through the loop of thread still
held under the thumb. Remove the thumb,
draw the loop of thread closely around the top
of the needle, pass the thread from left to right
under the needle, which is drawn at once through the little circular loop at
the top, and through the loop formed by passing the thread from left to
right. A little study of the illustration will leave no difficulty in forming
this very effective stitch.
Broken chain-stitch, sometimes called "cable stitch" (No. 12), is
worked like the chain, except that the
needle is put down outside the pre-
ceding loop, instead of through it, and
a trifle below, thus forming a series
of broken links or loops. A pretty
variation of the chain-stitch, too, con-
sists in working two parallel rows,
these being connected by a thread
passed from one to the other on the
inner side. The crossing thread may be of a different color, and many
charming applications of this stitch will be found (No. 13).
Another variation still is the triple-chain stitch, which may almost
be classed among herring-bone, feather or brier stitches. In this a stitch
is taken first to the left, then to the right, of the centre loop (No. 14 ). Still
another is the "wheat-head " or " ox-horn" stitch (No. 15), especially effec-
tive for grasses or sprays in conventional designs. In learning, it is well to
draw three parallel lines one-fourth inch apart, in order to make the stitch
evenly. Bring up the needle on the centre
line, and make first a chain-stitch. Insert
needle on left-hand line at the same level
on which the chain-stitch was started, and
bring it out in the lower part of the latter.
Repeat on right side, make another chain-
stitch, and continue to length desired.
The spikes, or " horns," may be of a


length corresponding to the space to be filled, if used, as sometimes; for long
petals, etc.
Beading-stitch, or knotted outline (No. 16), is a sort of cross-chain
stitch taken at a decided angle over the working thread, which is carried
upon the line. The effect is that of knots or beads placed at regular inter-
vals along a line of thread.
Twisted knot-stitch is very effective in outlining small, conventional
designs. It is simply a row of French knots, laid close together in a line.
Hold the working thread down with the thumb close to the spot where you
first brought it out, twist it around the needle twice, turn the needle from
left to right, pass it down through the fabric (as indicated by the point of
the arrow), and draw it out at the place where the next stitch is to be.
(No. 17).
The old German knotted stitch has recently appeared as a new " Rus-
sian stitch." This is often met with in old church and house linen embroi-
dery. Contrary to most stitches, it is worked upwards. The needle is put
in horizontally under the goods, the thread tightly drawn, then laid from
left to right, drawn through underneath the first stitch and a tight knot
made. This stitch may be worked in a variety of ways, according to the
taste and purpose of the worker the knots may be set slanting, straight and
close together, giving the appearance of a string of beads, or again wide
apart. In any case, care should be taken to make the stitches perfectly
regular. It is the direction given to the stitch and the number of threads
taken up that changes the appearance. (No. 18).
French embroidery stitch, No. 19 (see page 6), may be worked upward
or downward. Bring the needle through on the line to be followed. Lay
the thread to the left, take a short horizontal stitch, having an even distance
on both sides of the line, pull the needle through over the working thread,
and draw up. It is rapidly worked, and very effective for outlining sofa-
pillows, doilies, etc. The length of the stitch is determined by the pattern
and materials used.
Perhaps no fancy stitches are more used in a multitude of variations
than the the feather, coral or brier stitch. Of all these, as well as other
stitches, the buttonhole stitch is the foundation. Having learned to make
this well and evenly, a great step is taken. No. 20 (see page 8) shows
first, the plain feather-stitch, worked as follows : draw the thread up through
the work and hold it down with the left thumb, turning it toward the right.
Insert needle about one-eighth inch from where the thread was drawn
through, take a stitch slanting downward from right to left, one-eighth inch
in length, draw through, and repeat on the other side, reversing the oper-
ation, turning the thread to the left and slanting the stitch from left to right.
Double and treble feather-stitches are also illustrated. Having learned to
make the plain feather-stitch, it may be varied indefinitely. The herring-
bone-stitch is the simplest form of feather-stitch (No. 21, see page 8).
Coral differs from feather-stitch proper in having the branches curved rather
than straight or angular. The difference in these stitches varies with the
slant of the needle, and in the length and angularity of the stitches, not in
the mode of working them. No. 22 (see page 8) shows single and double


Cat-stitch (No. 23, see page 8) is much used in working the seams in
silk patchwork and flannel. Beginning at the left, throw the thread diago-
nally from you toward the right. Put the needle in and bring it out towards
you with a short, straight stitch on the under side of the work ; then throw
the thread diagonally from you toward the left, make another under-stitch
similar to the first, and repeat. This stitch is frequently called the herring-
bone-stitch. The Turkish or "Ismit" stitch is made in exactly the same
way (No. 24, see page 8), and illustrates how a little difference in method
changes the entire effect. In the latter the lines meet at a point, and when
very long may be fastened at the intersections by a stitch taken over them
as in couching. This is a very useful stitch for filling petals, or leaf-shaped
figures in conventional designs.
Janina-stitch is similar to this-a broad cross-stitch, short in propor-
tion to its width. A leaf-form filled with this stitch, worked close together,
produces a raised ridge with a vein down the centre, and is very effective.
(No. 25, see page 8).
Double cat-stitch is very pretty for ornamental borders, seams, etc.
It is worked upward, first from the right, then from the left, keeping the
thread above the needle. (No. 26, see page 8).
The cross-stitch is exactly what is indicated by its name-a crossed
stitch. These stitches may be either detached or connected, and are to be
varied almost indefinitely. The first step in producing the plain cross- stitch
(No. 27, see page 8) is the tent-stitch, simply a series of diagonal stitches
all taken in one direction. The cross-stitch is made by a second series of
stitches taken exactly opposite and over or across the first. The Persian
cross-stitch (No. 27a, see page 8) is much more artistic than the plain stitch,
the effect being that of braiding. It is made by taking the short stitch on
the upper edge twice as long as that on the lower edge, thus forming a
double cross or a tiny cross on each side of the stitch. Many similar stitches,
as the arrowhead and star (No. 28, see page 8) are used for "powderings,"
or fillings for conventional designs. No. 29 (see page 8) shows a very
effective square in tent, leviathan and fiat-stitch embroidery, which may be
used, alternating with plain checks, for a sofa-pillow. As a general thing
such stitches are more easily worked on coarse material of which the
threads may be readily counted ; but they may be applied to any fabric.
Darning-stitch (No. 36, see page 8) consists of parallel lines of
running stitches. Sofa-pillows of huckabuck, the background darned in,
while the design is simply outlined, are very effective. The darning is all on
the surface, the needle being passed under the little tufts or raised spots in
the cloth. No. 31 (see page 10) shows the Queen Anne darning-stitch-
exactly the method made use of ordinarily in mending hosiery, etc. Parallel
stitches are crossed from side to side of the space, and these are woven over
at right angles by threads crossing the opposite way. It is sometimes called
basket-stitch. Thread is not taken through the fabric except at the starting
and ending of the lines, and the work is much more effective (in embroidery)
If the stitches are sufficiently far apart to show the background through.
The couching-stitch, No. 32 (see page 10), is much used in applique
work. This consists in cutting out a design from one fabric and applying it
by means of close stitches to another. It is of two varieties, "on-laid" and


"in-laid" applique. In the first-named, the pattern is cut from one material
and laid upon another ; in the latter, the piece from which the design was
cut is placed upon some other ground. The possibilities of this work, which
is still very popular, are almost without limit. The design may be applied
by means of paste, or securely basted, and a thread or threads of the couch-
ing material are laid on the outline and held in place by fine stitches taken
over and over, at regular intervals.
Bird's-eye-stitch, No. 33 (see page 10), which may be used for small,
narrow petals, as those of the daisy, star-flower, etc., is a sort of chain-
stitch, starting from the centre. Put the needle up through, then down
again and out in a long stitch to the tip of the petal, bringing it up inside
the loop of silk, and pushing it down again just outside, forming a short
stitch to hold the petal in place.
French knot stitch will be found in nearly every piece of embroidery.
It is used for the centres of such flowers as the daisy, for the anthers of
others, for golden-rod, and such as are formed of masses of tiny blossoms.
The needle is brought up in the exact spot where the knot is to be. Twist
the thread around the needle once, twice, three times, or according to size
of knot required, keeping one twist above the other ; then pass the needle back
through the fabric at almost the same point where it came up, drawing it
down with the right hand, and with the thumb of the left keeping the twists
in place until the knot is secure. (No. 34, see page 10).
Bullion or roll-stitch (No. 35, see page 10) may also be classed as a
knot-stitch. It is especially adapted to working the heads of wheat, grasses,.
etc. A stitch of the length desired for the roll is taken in the material, the
point of the needle being brought to the surface at the starting point ; the
thread is then twisted eight or ten times around the point of the needle, which
is drawn carefully out through the twists, these being kept in place by the
left thumb. Insert the needle again in the same place as at first.
Satin-stitch (No. 36, see page 10) is employed in working the petals
of small flowers and leaves, and almost entirely in laid embroidery. It is
done by taking the needle back each time to the point whence it started,
having just the width of the working thread between, thus covering the
form with parallel stitches. Evenly done it produces a surface like satin,
hence the name. It is largely used in church embroidery, and many fair
imitations of the stitch will be found in the Hamburg edgings, on sale at
every " white goods " counter. It may be either flat or raised (No. 37,
see page 10). The "jewels" in embroidery of recent years are in raised
No. 38 (see page 10) shows a spray done entirely in this stitch, illus-
trating its effectiveness and varied possibilities. Raised stem-stitch is
similar to satin-stitch, being worked over an outline. It is used for sprays,
stems, etc. (No. 39, see page 10).
The buttonhole-stitch is of universal application in embroidery. While
a doily or centre-piece may occasionally be fringed, the great majority are
scalloped in styles simple or elaborate. Just here, whatever colors may be
used in the embroidery proper, it is best to work the edge in white. Color,
if used here at all, should be of the lightest tint corresponding to the pre-
dominating tone in the deslgn. The buttonholed edge may be likened to the
frame, which should never overbalance the picture.


Buttonholing is done in the hand, never in a hoop. Hold the edge
along which the knots shall lie toward you, and work from left to right.
Keep the thread in front of and under the needle as the stitch is drawn
through, the loop forming the knot on the edge. The stitches should
invariably be taken at right angles to the direction of the curve in the scallop
that is being worked. This suggestion will be found of assistance in the
working of elaborate scallops. The stamped scallop is bounded by two
lines, which are both to be covered in -Working, and may be either raised
(No. 40, see page 12) or fiat (No. 41, see page 12) as preferred. Filling in
gives a raised effect, adding to the beauty and durability of the edge, and this
may be done with coarse white embroidery or darning cotton. In the long
and short buttonhole-stitch, which is far more effective than the plain stitch
in many cases, the short stitches extend to cover the inner stamped line,
while the long are taken beyond it. This method affords scope for much
Roumanian stitch, No. 42 (see page 12), much used in heavy embroi-
dery of the conventional order, is a sort of double buttonhole. It is very
pretty for borders, for the " bow-knots " in many empire designs, etc., and
for narrow leaves, petals and grasses in purely conventional patterns. Bring
the needle up in the centre, and take a buttonhole-stitch over the upper line.
The detail, No. 43 (see page 12), shows the method clearly. Draw this
first stitch through, then put the needle in the lower line and send it up
to a point a little from the start, keeping the thread to the right. braw this
through and make another stitch like the first, always keeping the thread to
the right to form the loop. The stitches may be taken close together, or a
little apart, according to the fancy of the worker.
Blanket stitch is a simple buttonhole-stitch, taken say one-fourth
Inch apart. Honeycomb-stitch, No. 44 (see page 12), very effective as a
filling stitch in conventional designs, is begun with a row of blanket stitches
taken loosely, working from left to right. The next row, composed of loose
buttonhole-stitches of equal length, is worked back, being taken in over the
loop and through the fabric, then out below, forming a row of loops for
the next row, which is worked again from left to right. Net-stitch is made
in the same way, save that the stitches, except the first and last of each row,
are taken through the loops alone. Many of the stitches used in Battenberg
lace-making are used by the embroiderer in working conventional designs,
and my readers are referred to " Self-Instruction in Modern Lace-making,"
the best and least expensive work of its class published.
Detailed instruction in solid Kensington embroidery seems scarcely
within the scope of this little volume, yet a few hints may be of value. The
beginner should choose, first, a simple design, ó say that of a wild rose.
The linen is stretched tight in a frame or hoop ; for, although many embroi-
derers do not use the hoop, I have found much better results more easily
attained if this is done. Especially is this true if the hoop or frame is
fastened to the table, which should be a little higher than ordinary, thus
leaving both hands free to work, one under and one above, pushing the
needle in with the right and drawing it out with the left hand.
The first step is the long and short stitch, or " half-Kensington."
This in itself is a very pleasing form of embroidery for all designs to which

it is suited. The name describes the method, ó one long and one short
stitch, alternating, laid side by side upon the surface. The stitches are
begun on the outline, bringing the needle up every time just beyond the
stamped line. If taken through the line or just within it, the stamping will
show, sadly marring the effect. The outline should be true, and the stitches
form a smooth surface. Care to do the work exactly right, even though
progress may seem slow at first, will result in rapid and satisfactory execu-
tion. Remember, too, that all the short stitches should not be of one length,
nor all the long ones. While, as stated, the outer edge should be true to
the outline, the stitches on the inner edge should vary so as to present
variety, scarcely two being of exactly the same length. Thus laid, the work
takes the light in a very pretty way. Speaking in a general way, the length
of stitches must be governed by the size of the leaf or petal they are to
cover. It is very difficult to offer any rule, as there is so great a variety in
size and shape of forms. Simply observe a proper proportion to the size of
the form or shape, remember that stitches may be from one-quarter inch
to one inch in length. No. 45 (see page 12) shows a wild rose in long and
short stitch, or half-Kensington, and No. 46 (see page 12) the method of
For solid Kensington this is the first thing to be done : when the first
row of long and short stitches has been carried around the leaf, another
series of the same stitches is laid over the first, placed exactly in the same
direction, and blending with it. It will be seen that the second row consists
of long and short stitches on both edges, these taken between those of the
preceding row so that the surface is entirely covered. The lightest shade
is used for the outside, for the second row a little darker shade, and so on,
these being blended by means of the irregular stitches, so that one cannot
tell just where one begins and the other ends. The more perfectly this is
done, the better the work. If the form is large and deep, so that the centre
is to be much darker, several shades will be required. For a wild rose, three
will be sufficient. Pass gradually, as directed, from one tint to another, but
never abruptly from light to dark, unless in working autumn leaves, in which
occur sharp blotches of color.
No. 47 (see page 12) gives an accurate representation of the work.
The second row of stitches is really long and short on both edges, thus blend-
ing with the first and third rows. Fill in the centre with French knots, and
outline the stamens, ending with a similar knot. A little practice and study
of the proper arrangement of colors will soon enable anyone to do very
excellent work.
To Wash Embroidery.
Make a suds of warm, soft water, with Ivory or other pure, white
soap, free from resin. Wash each article quickly, taking one at a time, rinse
in clear water, squeeze as dry as possible, and either roll in a towel to extract
most of the moisture, or allow to become partly dry in a shady place. Then
place face down on several thicknesses of soft cloth, lay a thin cloth over
the back, and iron dry.

To Enlarge Patterns.
By carefully following the instructions given herewith, one can easily
reproduce on an enlarged scale, pictures, patterns, etc. Suppose one desires
to enlarge an embroidery design, as in No. 1. First, draw a horizontal line
across the top of the pattern,
then a vertical line down the
right side. Divide these
lines into equal parts so that
lines drawn to correspond
with these, down and across,
will form accurate spaces,
as illustrated. Now take a
piece of paper of the exact
size you wish the copy. Di-
vide this into exactly the
same number of spaces (No.
2). Number the squares or
lines, as shown. In the
fourth and fifth squares of
the upper row ( No. 1 )
appears a portion of a leaf.
With a pencil draw this
line in the corresponding
squares of No. 2, cutting
them off in the same proportion as in the copy. Continue thus throughout
the design, copying in each large square the portion of the pattern which
appears in the corresponding small square. By choosing a simple design to
begin with no diffi-
culty will be exper-
ienced. By making
the squares of
exactly the same
size as those en-
closing the origi-
nal, the reproduc-
tion will be of the
same size ; by en-
larging the squares
the design will be
larger, and by re-
ducing them it will
be smaller. In
short, the repro-
duction may be of
any desired size by
simply regulating
the size of squares
in original and
copy. In each,
remember there
must be the same
number of spaces.

Coronation Centre-piece.
Fill in the design
with feather, Persian,
or any fancy stitch
(No. 2 is very pretty
for the purpose) in
any desired color and
outline with white
coronation braid.
sewed on with fine
thread. The effect is
lovely. Colored art
linen may be chosen
for the foundation if
preferred, and many
open patterns may be
thus applied. If pre-
ferred the outline can
be in embroidery, using the knotted, old German, chain-stitch or rope outline.
Doily in Roman
Having the design
traced upon linen,
proceed as directed
for "Danish Antique
Embroidery," Fill
the open spaces with
twisted threads and
When putting in
these stitches it will
be found an excellent
plan to baste the work
upon a piece of com-
mon table-oilcloth, as
recommended in
making Battenburg
lace, or an embroidery
hoop may be used.


Mountmellick Embroidery.
Genuine Mountmellick embroidery is always in white thread or floss
upon heavy linen, white satin jean, or other material. It is strong and durable
and is suitable for any article of drapery or decoration for a bedroom.
Although easily soiled, it is easily laundered. The designs are of course
purely conventional. That given illustrates the corner of a cover for lamp-
stand, and is worked in satin and outline-stitch. If preferred, the outline
may be of French knots, the leaves filled in with feather-stitch, or with
the centre vein of French knots with the edge of satin-stitch. Bullion-
stitch, rope-stitch, chain, cable, and many of the great variety of stitches
illustrated elsewhere are used in this work. The edge of the little cover
shown is finished with tatted rings fringe might be applied instead, or a
heavy knitted lace. In the genuine Mountmellick work, however, the article
is invaribly finished with buttonholing, and often with a fringe knitted from
the same thread with which the embroidery is done. For the buttonholing,
long and short stitch is frequently employed, varied as liked.

Leaf Doilies.
For these, and
similar doilies, cut
from stiff paper a leaf
in any shape desired.
Upon a square of linen
strike a circle, and
mark around this a
circlet of the leaves,
having the outer points
just touching the line.
In No. 2, the stem of
each leaf is hidden by
the preceding leaf ; the
stems could also point
toward the centre.
No. 1 has a circlet of
blossoms. The sug-
gestion is to be varied
almost indefinitely.

Some Conventional Doilies.

Nothing more surely indicates the growing desire to obtain the best
effect for least work in needle-craft, as in other lines, than does the popu-
larity of doilies similar to those herewith shown. The palm pattern may be
worked in plain or knotted outline, the threads in the palm-leaf simply
crossed and held down at the intersections by a tiny cross-stitch or knot.
The remaining three may be done in French stitch, feather or coral stitch,
and the work is especially effective if shaded, or if two or more shades of one
color are used. Many ladies prefer to fringe round doilies, and this is
very easy when one knows how. Take (for example) a twelve-inch square

of linen. Mark upon this a perfect circle, as large as possible, then another
circle an inch within. Around the inner circle stitch with the sewing-
machine, using a fine thread with short stitch. Having embroidered the
centre, buttonhole over the stitched line, cut around the outer line, and pro-
ceed to draw the threads, beginning on one side next the stitched line. Draw
the threads to the edge on all four sides, which will leave four triangles.
Pull the threads in these, one at a time, from the stitched line, using a pin
for the purpose, straighten out and even the fringe, and the work is done.

Etching, in Embroidery.
The illustration shows in full size the corner of a pretty doily in what
is called "delft" embroidery, named because done in shades of blue to imitate
the delft ware. of olden time. Such designs are applied to pillow-covers,
splashers, toilet-mats, etc., etc., and when one has become familiar with the
outline-stitchósometimes called etching-stitchóthey may be worked out most
effectively. A. "picture-quilt" in delft embroidery was seen not long ago,
designed for use on the bed of a small maiden who has just arrived at the
dignity of having a bed-chamber of her own. This room is furnished in blue
and white, hence the delft decoration. Very pretty and odd bed-coverings
are made of remnants of bleached (or unbleached) cotton, cut in squares,
each stamped or marked with a design --either of flowers, animals, birds, or
as may be fanciedówhich is worked in outline-stitch. The seams are
feather-stitched, and the edge finished with a ruffle, fringe or lace, as liked.
Pillow-shams may be made to match. Such work is greatly enjoyed by the
little folk who are just learning to use a needle, and who very quickly pick
up the simpler embroidery stitches if given the opportunity to learn them.

"Wild Rose" Bureau Set.
Take pieces of linen of the shape and size wanted, and trace around
the edge of each figure, which is shown full size. The spray is done in
satin-stitch, the inner edge outlined and the outer (from which the linen is
cut away when the work is completed) buttonholed. Simple straight stitch
and French knots complete the embroidery.

Toilet or Commode Set.
Use white art canvas or butcher's linen, with floss of a color to har-
monize with other fittings of the room. The design is so simple as to be
readily copied. Buttonhole the edge, and for the rest use outline and bird's-
eye stitches, the petals of the daisies being formed as shown (No. 33, p. 10).

Square in Danish Antique Embroidery.

This beautiful class of work is of but recent introduction in this
country. The design is traced or stamped on white linen, and any combi-
nation of figures in oval, crescent, circular and other shapes may be chosen.
Run or stitch around with needle or machine
those which are to be cut out, then with
sharp scissors cut the linen in the centre and
out toward the edge, turning it back to the
run line, buttonhole over both thicknesses,
and cut the linen close to the buttonholing at
the back. (No. 2 shows the process). This
gives a firm, neat edge without fraying. Fill
in with any lace stitches, and work the sprays
in satin-stitch. The edge is of rings, button-
holed over and filled with a tiny spider-web.
A knowledge of "modern lace-making"
will enable one to do this work very readily. Designs may be originated
by cutting patterns of pasteboard, crescent-shaped, oval, etc., arranging them
and tracing around them with a pencil. Linen thread and floss is invariably
chosen, the Ulster etching flax being adapted to the satin-stitch sprays.

Darned Net Embroidery.
This work, which is exactly as indicated by the title, consists in darn-
ing a chosen design upon or in lace net. The work is adapted to every
variety of decoration, and is so easily and quickly done that its popularity is
not to be wondered at. The net
and darning material may be fine
or coarse, according to the pur-
pose for which the finished work
is intended. No. 1 shows a lace
used for trimming an apron of
fine lawn. White star flossette,
size ***, was used for darning,
the edge being buttonholed with
the same before cutting out.
As the patterns are full-size no
instructions are needed,ó simply
use a needle large enough to
carry the floss nicely. Nos. 2,
3 and 4 are insertions used in a set of very lovely drapery curtains,ó the
zig-zag on the edge, which was buttonholed to correspond with the points,
the star next, then the straight insertion, repeating the arrangement once. The
tiny centre star was scattered at intervals throughout the body of the curtain.


A Photograph Frame.
While so simple as to be very easily enlarged and copied, there are few
more effective designs than this. If not wanted for a frame it may be used
for the corners of a centre-piece or tray-cloth. To make a frame, either
white or colored art linen may be
used, and the "jewels" may consist
of spangles, each caught in place
by a tiny glass or metal bead. To
mount the frame, cut a heavy piece
of cardboard about three-fourths
inch smaller than the linen. Cut
the opening in the centre to corre-
spond with that of the linen, but a
trifle larger. Cover the cardboard
with a piece of wadding cut the
exact shape and glued on. Place
the padded side on the wrong side
of the embroidered linen, bring the
latter through the opening and over
the edge, taking care to draw it
smoothly and evenly, and glue it
down. Cover a second piece of
cardboard, with no opening, with
linen or any preferred material, and
attach to the first by a few drops of glue, leaving a space at the top to slip
the picture in.

Sofa Pillows.

Four very simple yet most effective designs are shown. That in cross-
stitch may be carried out on checked gingham, if preferred, or on the ever
popular art canvas. In this work a great many colors are permissible, giving
an oriental effect, and enabling one to utilize odds and ends of material which
may remain from other pieces of embroidery. The fleur-de-lis design in the
lower right hand corner may be outlined with coronation braid, and the
petals filled with Ismit stitch, or the German knotted outline used instead of
the braid. This pattern makes a lovely cover for small table, as well. The
scroll design, upper left corner, is extremely effective carried out in rich red

and black floss on light brown or tan art canvas. The plain outline may be
in black. the feather-stitching, jewels and cross-stitching in the centre oval
of red. Carry the threads straight across, catching them where they inter-
sect with a double cross-stitch of black. For the fleur-de-lis with cross-
stitch, the stitch No. 13 may be used with charming effect for outlining, or
if preferred, Russian braid. Any colors desired may be chosen. For pillows
on art canvas, denim, gingham, and similar materials, intended for hard
service, the Ulster rope linen floss, size 00, is recommended ; it is very lus-
trons, having the effect of silk, and does not fray or grow rough with usage

Sofa Pillows on Gingham.
Gingham, in large or small check, is one of the most popular materials
for pillow-covers at the present time, and among the many designs none has
received more favor than the wheel and cross. Threads are carried across
and woven over, as shown. Use white star fiossette (linen) size **, on blue

and white or red and white gingham, and finish with a plain ruffle of blue
or red chambray or gingham, having over this a narrower ruffle of white
lawn. Or a piffle of the gingham, cross-stitched, may be used. No. 2 offers

a similar suggestion, combining the plain woven wheel without ribs, levia-
than and straight stitch. No. 3 combines bird's-eye and satin stitch. No. 4

The cross-stitch figures, No.
7, will be of assistance to anyone
desiring to work such a pillow
as described.

shows a simple all-over design which, worked in two shades of blue on
blue and white gingham, is very dainty, and No. 5 a pattern which may be
used for table-cover, pillow-cover, or as liked. Frequently in cross-stitch
the background is filled in, while the design is left plain, as illustrated by
No. 6. A very unique pillow having the words "Rest here thy weary head"
in cross-stitch letters worked in this way was recently seen. A "patriotic

pillow" of blue and white gingham bore the legend "Remember the Maine,
1898" worked with red floss. A tiny flag was cross-stitched in each corner,
just inside the border, which consisted of alternate red and white leviathan
stitches. Indeed, the varieties in this class of work seem limited only by the
ingenuity of the worker.

Leviathan-stitch consists of a simple cross-stitch from corner to cor-
ner, then another from side to side, both ways. Pillow-covers are worked
by placing this stitch in each dark check, or using it in a pattern instead of
the cross-stitch. Animals, birds, flowers, etc., are cross-stitched on sofa-
pillows of gingham, as well as crocheted for tidies. Nos. 7, 8, 9 and 10, show
several pretty borders to be used for such covers.

Table Scarf.
The large plaid ginghams are still in demand for pillow-covers, table-
scarfs, head-rests, etc., and designs are readily originated. A scarf which
will find general favor is illustrated ; the finish is a fringe of crocheted rings
with tassels of the floss used in the embroidery. A great many of the lace-
stitches, as described and illustrated in " Self-Instruction in Modern Lace-
making " are adapted to this method of decoration.

Cross-stitch Borders.

The trimming of little dresses and aprons with cross-stitching was
never more in vogue than at present, and mothers who delight in dainty
and effective, yet inexpensive decoration will welcome this page of designs.
Worked over the darkest checks with white the borders are very much wider
than shown. A charming little dress is of white cross-barred muslin, cross-
stitched with pale pink etching flax, and with a guimpe of pink chambray.

Crazy Patch-work.
It is extremely doubtful whether this class of needlework will ever
lose its popularity. It serves so admirably to use odd bits of silk, and is
really so artistic, if properly made, that its hold upon the feminine mind is
not to be wondered at. It may interest many to know that the first "crazy
quilt " was made at the Tewksbury (Mass.) almshouse by a demented but
gentle inmate, who delighted to sew together, in hap-hazard fashion, all the
odd pieces given her. One day a lady visitor was shown the quilt as a sample
of " poor Martha's crazy work." The conglomeration of color, bright and
dark, of every conceivable shape and size, caught the visitor's fancy, and
within a week she, herself, was making a crazy quilt. And thence the furor
spread. A foundation or lining of some material is taken (canton flannel is
excellent, being soft and strong), and upon this the scraps of silk, satin and
velvet, or of worsted, cretonne or even calico, are basted one by one, the
raw edges being folded under, and the seams covered with fancy stitches,
as shown by Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4, and on the worked squares illustrated.

Either plain or figured silk is used, and the pieces are frequently dec-
orated by the aid of the brush and palette, and well as with needle and
colored floss. Quaint designs, the more odd and original the better, are
outlined upon them. Two colors of silk are frequently used in ornamenting
the same seam, as illustrated by No. 5, No. 6, and Nos. 7 and 8. Not only
are entire quilts made thus, but crazy patch-work makes a beautiful finish
for the ends of table-scarfs, sofa-pillows, head-rests, lambrequins, etc.

Crazy Quilt.


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